Improved and Unimproved Sources of Water (JMP & WSTF)


To allow for international comparability of estimates, JMP (the Joint Monitoring Programme of WHO and UNICEF) uses a classification to differentiate between "improved" and "unimproved" drinking-water sources.

An improved drinking-water source is defined as one that, by nature of its construction or through active intervention, is protected from outside contamination, in particular from contamination with faecal matter (See: http://www.wssinfo.org/definitions-methods/introduction/).


The following water supply options are considered to be improved water sources or outlets:

  

Type of water source/outlet

         

(X = improved facility)

Improved facility (water supply)

WSTF/WASREB

JMP (4)

 

 

Urban areas

Rural areas

All areas

Piped water into dwelling, plot or yard supplied by licensed WSP (1)

X

X

X

Piped water into dwelling, plot or yard supplied by ISP or Cat. 2 WSP


     

X

X

Public tap/standpipe,(2) water provided by licensed WSP (1) (3)

X

X

X

Public tap/standpipe, water provided by licensed ISP


     

X

X

Tube well/borehole


     

X

X

Protected dug well


     

X

X

Protected spring


     

X

X

Rainwater collection


     

X

X

Unprotected dug well


     


     


     

Unprotected spring


     


     


     

Cart with small tank/drum


     


     


     

Tanker truck


     


     


     

Bottled water 5


     


     


     

Surface water (river, dam, lake, pond, stream, canal, irrigation channels)


     


     


      

1): The Water Service Provider (WSP) operates within the regulatory framework and its tariffs have been approved by the Regulator (WASREB).

2): Including the water kiosk and communal tap.

3): Including the prepaid public stand post.

4): See: http://www.wssinfo.org/definitions-methods/watsan-categories/

5): Bottled water is considered to be improved by JMP only when the household uses water from an improved source for cooking and personal hygiene.