- National level
- About us
- Methods & Tools
- MajiData project
- Contact us
To allow for international comparability of estimates, JMP (the Joint Monitoring Programme of WHO and UNICEF) uses a classification to differentiate between "improved" and "unimproved" drinking-water sources.
An improved drinking-water source is defined as one that, by nature of its construction or through active intervention, is protected from outside contamination, in particular from contamination with faecal matter (See: http://www.wssinfo.org/definitions-methods/introduction/).
The following water supply options are considered to be improved water sources or outlets:
Type of water source/outlet
(X = improved facility)
Improved facility (water supply)
Piped water into dwelling, plot or yard supplied by licensed WSP (1)
Piped water into dwelling, plot or yard supplied by ISP or Cat. 2 WSP
Public tap/standpipe,(2) water provided by licensed WSP (1) (3)
Public tap/standpipe, water provided by licensed ISP
Protected dug well
Unprotected dug well
Cart with small tank/drum
Surface water (river, dam, lake, pond, stream, canal, irrigation channels)
1): The Water Service Provider (WSP) operates within the regulatory framework and its tariffs have been approved by the Regulator (WASREB).
2): Including the water kiosk and communal tap.
3): Including the prepaid public stand post.
5): Bottled water is considered to be improved by JMP only when the household uses water from an improved source for cooking and personal hygiene.