Access to Improved Water Supply & Coverage (WSTF)

Access to improved water supply:


  • the distance between the dwellings and the public or communal water outlet (e.g. kiosk) does not exceed 500 metres (walking distance),
  • water is supplied by a licensed WSP [i.e. a Provider with a valid Service Provision Agreement (SPA)],
  • water quality is monitored and measured according to the frequency1 required by the Regulator and if it meets the standards set by WASREB,
  • the water pressure measured at the tap is at least 17 litres per minute,  
  • the area is supplied at least 6 days/week,
  • the kiosk is supplied and open to customers (business hours) at least 6 hours/day,
  • the tariff is pro-poor and approved by the Regulator,
  • the water outlet/facility meets the technical standards set by the sector,

then the following number of persons can be said to have adequate access to safe water supplied by the following water supply outlets/facilities:

Type of connection

Additional characteristics

No. of Persons adequately served



Individual connection

Indoor plumbing


This is the estimated number of people using a domestic connection


Plot-level connection

Yard tap (one tap)


Figure based on average plot population size


Public stand post

Equipped with 1 tap


Improved public stand posts only


Prepaid public stand post

Equipped with 1 tap


Improved prepaid public stand posts only


Water kiosk (closed or open)

Equipped with 3 taps


Assuming a consumption of 8 l/c/d


Non-domestic connection



A commercial or institutional connection (etc.)

If, considering water kiosks only:

  • water pressure at the tap is 15 litres per minute,

  • a kiosk is equipped with 3 taps and

  • a full 20-litre container contains 22 litres of water.

If we assume the following:

  • 45 litres of water/minute can be supplied by the kiosk which amounts to 123 full 20-litre containers/hour (approximately 2,706 litres).

  • Water wastage is 3% (= 81 litres/hour), which means 2,625 litres of water/hour can be fetched at the kiosk (= 119 full 20-litre containers = 2 containers per minute).

  • The time required to place and remove containers on the fetching bay is 10 seconds/container. This means that approximately 90 containers/hour can be fetched at the kiosk (= 1,980 litres).

  • Daily per capita consumption is 8 litres.

  • There are no peak demand hours.

If a kiosk is to adequately serve 1,200 residents, then:

  • 248 persons can be served/hour.

  • The kiosk needs to be open at least 4.8 hours/day to serve 1,200 customers (residents).

1 E.g. the number of samples per parameter in the network for an annual water production of < 240,000 m3: bacteriological 12/year, residual chlorine 48/year). (Source: WASREB 2008: 14).