The hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact with the hazards of wastes. Hazards can be physical, microbiological, biological or chemical agents of disease. Wastes that can cause health problems are human and animal faeces, solid wastes, domestic wastewater (sewage, sullage, greywater), industrial wastes, and agricultural wastes. Hygienic means of prevention can be by using engineering solutions (e.g. sewerage and wastewater treatment), simple technologies (e.g. latrines, septic tanks), or even by personal hygiene practices (e.g. simple hand washing with soap).

The World Health Organization (WHO) states:

"Sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and faeces. Inadequate sanitation is a major cause of disease world-wide and improving sanitation is known to have a significant beneficial impact on health both in households and across communities. The word 'sanitation' also refers to the maintenance of hygienic conditions, through services such as garbage collection and wastewater disposal.

The term "Sanitation" can be applied to a specific aspect, concept, location, or strategy, such as:

  • Basic sanitation - refers to the management of human faeces at the household level. This terminology is the indicator used to describe the target of the Millennium Development Goal on sanitation.

  • On-site sanitation - the collection and treatment of waste is done where it is deposited. Examples are the use of pit latrines, septic tanks, and Imhoff tanks.

  • Food sanitation - refers to the hygienic measures for ensuring food safety.

  • Environmental sanitation - the control of environmental factors that form links in disease transmission. Subsets of this category are solid waste management, water and wastewater treatment, industrial waste treatment and noise and pollution control.

  • Ecological sanitation- a concept and an approach of recycling to nature the nutrients from human and animal wastes. (Sources: WHO: ; Wikipedia; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:


  • Safe collection, storage, treatment and disposal of human excreta.>

  • Collection, treatment and disposal of wastewater from households, institutions and industries.

  • Management of solid wastes.

  • Drainage of storm water. (Source: MajiData).

Sanitation in urban low-income areas: Mainly refers to the access to, and use of, excreta and wastewater facilities and services that provide privacy while at the same time ensuring a clean and healthful living environment both at home and in the immediate neighbourhood of users. (Source: MajiData).