Sanitation Coverage

1. Introduction

The coverage definitions for water supply and sanitation have been developed in order to calculate area coverage rates. The Kenyan Water Sector is currently (May 2011) developing definitions of (sustainable) access to safe water and sanitation as well as coverage definitions. As soon as these definitions are available, MajiData will adopt these definitions and update (recalculate) all its coverage data. (Source: MajiData).

2. Household and plot-level sanitation facilities

One (1) improved household or plot-level sanitation unit (door) can adequately provide sanitation access to 10 persons provided they are living on the same plot (within the same yard or compound) or on the same floor (in case of a block of flats).

3. Public sanitation (facilities)


  • population density is such that the construction of dwelling or plot level sanitation is not feasible.

  • the distance between the dwellings and the public sanitation facility or communal water outlet (e.g. kiosk) does not exceed 500 metres (walking distance),

  • water is supplied by a licensed WSP [i.e. a Provider with a valid Service Provision Agreement (SPA)],

  • the duration of a man's short call (including entering the facility, hand washing, paying and leaving the facility) is 5 minutes, and only a urinal is used,

  • the duration of a manís long call (including entering the facility, hand washing, paying and leaving the facility) is 10 minutes.

  • the duration of a womanís short & long call (including entering the facility, hand washing, paying and leaving the facility) is 12 minutes.

  • the duration of a disabled person's visit to the toilet facility is 15 minutes,

  • the toilet is open and operational (i.e. sufficient water of good quality is available) for at least 8 hours.

then the following types of toilet can adequately serve:

Public sanitation facility

Short call

Long call

Type of toilet:



Menís urinal



Womenís toilet



Menís toilet



Disabled persons toilet



If we accept the above-mentioned assumptions, a public sanitation facility which is equipped with 3 urinals, 2 menís toilets 3 womenís toilets and one toilet for the disabled can adequately supply (36 + 15 + 12 + 4) 67 persons/hour and 536 persons per day. (Source: MajiData).

4. Sludge management

When considering the environmental and public health objectives of (improved) sanitation, the entire sanitation chain has to be analysed. In other words, a public sanitation facility can only be considered an improved facility if such activities as emptying, transport, disposal and sludge treatment do not cause harm to the environment and to public health. (Source: MajiData).