Data Collection Activities

Prior to the commencement of the actual data collection, a number of meetings were held:

The main purposes of the meetings can be summed up as follows:

  1. Introducing the project and explain the objectives of the project.
    Consultation with the management of the WSB and the WSP aimed at the seconding of a WSB liaison officer and WSP data collection supervisor. Through the WSB the MajiData Team was able to establish contacts with the WSPs.
  2. Getting to know the relevant field (regional) offices (if existing) of some of the WSPs.
  3. Collecting first-level information on existing Low Income Areas (LIAs) and their locations (including existing maps if available).
  4. Collecting preliminary information on some issues highlighted in the data collection tools.
  5. Undertaking a guided reconnaissance visit to LIAs known to the local stakeholders/partners. Through visits, observation and probing, a final list of LIAs is prepared, based on the definitions and criteria prepared by the MajiData Team.

Data was collected at all levels: WSB, WSP, Councils, Local Administration, area level and plot level.

The reconnaissance visit provided the opportunity for:

    1. Ground appraisal of the urban centre and especially the low income areas (LIAs) identified by the above stakeholders (f). During the reconnaissance visit other areas that qualify as LIAs, yet undocumented by the WSP or located outside the jurisdiction of the WSP or the Council, were listed, including LIA in urban sub-centres. On the basis of the visit, a final list of target low income areas was prepared for each city and town. Use of detailed town maps, high-resolution satellite images, GPS, and archiving contact persons was endeavoured.
    2. Delineation of targeted low income areas into sections for the purpose of managing the data collection exercise. Where necessary, assistance of local stakeholders (e.g. area development committee) was sought to provide the local names of such sections. Otherwise, physical features/infrastructure like roads or streets were employed. The distinct area sections allowed for subsequent formulation of practical strategy for plot counting and plot sampling.

In each city or town the preparatory activities were followed by the actual data collection programme. 

This programme consisted of the following key activities:

These activities were implemented simultaneously by the Data Collectors who were guided and supervised by a Field Coordinator and Supervisor. The Data Collectors were specialised in administering mapping tools employed in implementing the above mapping techniques. Data quality checks and data cleaning were normally undertaken later in the day after having mapped the set number of target areas.  

At the level of the WSB the data collection exercise consists of the following activities:





Participants/unit    of interview

Data collection tool


MajiData Rolling Out Workshop

Inform and ensure participation of WSBs and WSPs

The WSB and all licensed WSPs

Workshop toolkit


Stakeholders meeting (at WSP and at town level)

Inform and ensure participation of WSP staff and authorities

The WSP and the Provincial and Local Authorities

PowerPoint presentations


Reconnaissance visit (at town level)

To create the initial list of low income urban areas

The WSP and the Provincial and Local Authorities

Reconnaissance sheet & Area recording sheet


Appointment visits

To make contact with the local representatives of the Local and Provincial Authorities

Chief, Assistant Chiefs, residents, opinion leaders, elders, etc.

Appointment sheet


Data collection at area level:


GPS area boundary tracking

  • Creation of area map with boundaries

  • Facility the plots/dwellings count

Chief and Assistant Chiefs, local residents

GPS tracking sheet


Plot and/or dwelling counts

  • Obtain the total no. of plots/dwellings

  • Enabling the sampling of plots/dwellings for interviews (1)

  • Enable the area population estimate

Chief and Assistant Chiefs, local residents

Plot/dwelling count tool


Plot and/or dwelling interviews

  • Collect data at plot/dwelling level

  • Enable the area population estimate

Chief and Assistant Chiefs, local residents

Plot/dwelling interview tool


Focus group discussions

  • Collect data at area level

  • Confirm some plot/dwelling level data

Chief and Assistant Chiefs, local residents

Area level data collection tool


GPS readings of WSS infrastructure and area features/characteristics

  • Create an inventory of all public WSS infrastructure and other installations

Assistant Chiefs, local residents

GPS tracking sheet


Taking pictures of WSS infrastructure and area features/characteristics  

  • Create a photo base on Kenya's low income urban areas

  • Illustrate data collected

Assistant Chiefs, local residents

Picture/GPS recoding sheet

1): The sample size depends on the total number of plots/dwellings.

The focus group discussions (see table above; 5D) served to collect data at area level: information on public water points, seasonal flooding, solid waste disposal, etc. Residents from various parts of the area were asked to participate. In most cases the number of participants ranged between 15 and 35. In large urban slums it was necessary to organise a number of group discussions.